TOYOTA COROLLA (DECEMBER, PART 1)
CAR OF THE MONTH- TOYOTA COROLLA
Hello friends! From the exhilarating series in the past months, let us explore another wonder of Japan. It is the Toyota Corolla, the best-selling car of 2019 according to focus2move.com. It is a line of subcompact and compact models manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation since 1966, spanning twelve generations. Corolla came from the Latin word meaning "small crown", in line with the Toyota Crown.
However, reading 12 generations of this car will take some difficulty, and to cope with the problem, this blog will be split into three months, lasting until February 2020.
First Generation (E10; 1966-1970)
It was launched in 1966 and features a K pushrod engine. A fastback version was also launched in 1968, and it is exclusive to a Toyota Japan dealership called Toyota Auto Store.
In the U.S.A., models were exported starting March 1968. Facelifts every two years were steadfast, and models were also replaced every four years. Exports to Australia were also commenced on November 1966, while local production began on July 1968.
Second GENERATION (e20; 1970-1978)
It was launched in May 1970 and features a more rounded body. It also featured a "coke-bottle style" together with a greatly improved front suspension design. On September 1971, minor changes were applied, featuring a new grille, turn signal lights, and taillights. A facelift was also done on August 1972. It was also the first model sold in Indonesia. Models were also sold in sedan (Standard, Deluxe, Hi-Deluxe) and coupé (Deluxe, SL, SR, Levin) body styles.
Most models stopped production after 1974, but the KE26 wagon was still marketed in Japan until production ended in 1978.
Models with the highest trim were installed with a 1.6 L engine. The Levin trim was also originally available with a twin-cam engine, but sometime on late 1973, another model with the 1.6 L 2T-B engine, the cheaper and less powerful Levin J, was made.
Models featured a three-speed automatic or four-speed manual transmission was also offered, until five-speed coupes, the S5 and the SR5, were also offered in 1972.
tHIRD generation (E30, E40, E50, E60; 1974-1981)
It was launched in April 1974 and featured a rounder, heavier, and bigger body. Models were also sold in coupé, sedan, hardtop coupé, liftback, station wagon, and van body styles.
Originally in the SE trim, a luxury CS trim was launched in February 1976. It featured carpeting, a clock, and reclining cloth seats. A facelifted version of the model was also launched in November 1978, featuring a new grille and dashboard and revised interior trim. A facelift also ocurred in 1980, featuring a squared-off grille and rectangular headlights.
The body styles in the U.S. were also offered in Europe. All sedans and wagons were equipped with the 1.2 L 3K engine, while the Liftback occasionally had the 2T engine. In 1977, a small facelift brought a redesigned dashboard, additional interior trim colors, and a new grille with small twin horizontal beams across it. The model's exterior trim was also redesigned in 1979 with new taillights and a new grille.
The 3K engine, popular due to it's low fuel consumption, was replaced by the 4K engine, with a Toyota Total Clean (TTC) system, in the 1970s due to emission problems. However, it only gave 45 kW of power, despite having a greater displacement.
American automotive enthusiast magazine Road & Track was critical of the 1975 model, calling it "large and heavy"and "expensive" compared to the Honda Civic and Datsun B210. The "relatively crude rear suspension", lack of interior space, and poor fuel economy was also pointed out.
Fourth Generation (E70; 1979-1987)
It was launched in March 1979 and was the last model with rear wheel drive configuration. It featured a square edged design and fuel injection as an extra cost option for Japanese markets. The one millionth model was also made at this time, and therefore, the limited "One Million Edition" was launched in Japan. Models were also sold in sedan, hardtop coupé, liftback, station wagon, and van body styles.
It was marketed in many Asian countries and Win Percy also won the 1982 British Saloon Car Championship driving the model.
It was launched in October 1979, and it featured a 1.8 L engine and a five-speed transmission. Other body styles were launched in October 1981 and featured the 1.3 L 4K-C engine. Facelifted models were also launched in October 1986, featuring the 1.6 L 4A-C engine as an option. The "Corolla Spirit", a special edition sedan, was also launched in early 1984. It featured a boot spoiler, the 1.6 L 4A-C engine, chromed wheels. stripes, and additional equipment.
In February 1982, the Toyota 1C diesel engine was introduced, and the van did not come with a 1.6 L gasoline engine,.
The hardtop and liftback styles of the models were among the last true pillarless hardtops sold in North America.
FIFTH Generation (E80; 1983-1990)
It was launched in May 1983, and featured a sloping front bonnet and a contemporary sharp-edged, no frills style. It also featured the new 1C diesel engine, and fuel injection as an extra cost option. Most models also adopted the front-wheel drive layout, except for the AE85 and AE86 versions, which were the last models to be equipped with rear-wheel drive. Models were also sold in hatchback, sedan, liftback, coupé, and hatchback coupé body styles.
The AE86 models were campaigned in the Group A rally championships from 1985 to 1992. It won in the 1985 Rally Portugal, with Jorge Ortigão driving and J. Batista navigating. It continued to race as late as the 1993 Acropolis Rally, with it's best placing third overall at the 1989 Rallye Côte d'Ivorire. It also become known in the world of drifting, in which owners heavily modify their models to the point the shape was only one unchanged. The 1986 Australian 2.0 Litre Touring Car Championship was also won by John Smith, driving at GT AE86.
Models were usually equipped with the 1.3 L 2A-C or 2E-L engines and 1.6 L 4A-C petrol engines. However, after the 1985 facelift, the 2A-C or 2E-L engines were replaced with the new 12-valve E-series engines. The new models also featured slightly bigger headlamps and flush hubcaps.
Models were sold with either a single overhead camshaft (SOHC) or a dual overhead camshaft. (DOHC). Also, from 1985 to 1988, the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. in Fremont, California built a rebadged version of model which became the Chevrolet Nova.
SIXTH Generation (E90; 1987-2006)
It was launched in May 1987 and featured a somewhat more rounded and aerodynamic style.
It was the last model that was classified as a subcompact car and was the first to exclusively use front- or all-wheel drive. Models were also sold in coupé, wagon, and liftback body styles.
In the Philippines, models were also sold in XL, XE, and GL trims. Earlier XL models also came with 4-speed transmission, while later ones had the standard 5-speed transmission, therefore giving the XL4 and XL5 trims.
In December 1988, Toyota made a joint venture with automobile manufacturer Holden, which resulted in the United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI). This agreement also resulted in the model being made and marketed as the Holden Nova, which lasted until the next generation. The liftback version of the model was also known as the Seca.
Models were usually sold in a four-door sedan and a three- or five- door liftback, and the regular wagon. Models also had the standard side marker lights and the taillight with an integrated rear fog lamp, except for the wagon, which had the rear fog lamp at the tailgate. It also featured headlight washers.
The 5-door wagon version of the model also received the "Touring" suffix in many markets. However, the liftback suffered from a so-called "design afterthought", as the liftback's design was derived from the sedan, a truncated and minimal trunk-spaced design. The diesel version of the model also saw substantial sales in Belgium and the Netherlands. It was also competetive throughout Europe, even though it was quite slow and had heavy equipment.
Models featured a more contemporary look, improved aerodynamics, longer bumpers, and small lights on the rear quarter panels. It also features stylish vents near the rear side windows, where cabin air comes out.
In 1990, a 25th anniversary edition was launched, celebrating 25 years of the model. It featured a Toyota ellipse emblem on the grille, all-red taillights, door-mounted and manual lap front belt seats, and new wheelcovers, while the rear garnish was removed.
Models were only sold in two styles, the Conquest and the Conquest Tazz, later the Tazz after October 2000. The Conquest was sold in five-door hatchback, four-door sedan, and panel van, which was known as the Conquest Carri, or simply Carri from 2000, body styles. It was launched on October 1988, with a 53 kW (72 PS) 1.3 L 2E or a 1.6 L 4A-F engine.
The Conquest Tazz was launched at October 1996. It featured very low equipment levels, which originally included a four-speed manual transmission, twin-tip exhaust, and body-colored bumpers, while lacking a rear windshield wiper or a cigarette lighter. Five-speed manual transmission became available three years later, and a light facelift in October 2000 gave a more ovoid front end treatment. It continued to be built until July 5, 2006.
(This blog will stop here. Info on the seventh generation further will be posted on January 2020.)
World Best Selling Car - The top in 2019. (2019, February 21). Retrieved from https://focus2move.com website: https://focus2move.com/world-best-selling-car/.
Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, August 4). Toyota Corolla (E80). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla_(E80).
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Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, October 30). Toyota Corolla (E20). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla_(E20).
Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, November 12). Toyota Corolla (E30). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla_(E30).
Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, November 12). Toyota Corolla (E70). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla_(E70).
Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, December 7). Toyota Corolla. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla.
Wikipedia Contributors. (2019, December 9). Toyota Corolla (E90). Retrieved from Wikipedia website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Corolla_(E90).